Inks used in fine art reproduction that have
been optimized for permanence and maximum color gamut.
Images are digitally archived or saved often
on CD-ROM. Information necessary to reproduce the print is also
archived, including ink, tables, sizes and media used.
Frequently, an edition
will include a number of prints called Artist Proofs, or AP's.
These proofs are normally printed at the time of the initial printing
of the edition and are outside of the numbered series. AP's frequently
sell for more than prints from an edition.
Bon-A-Tirer or BAT (bone-ah-ti-ray):
The proof accepted by the artist that is used as the standard
for comparing all subsequent prints. Some printers require a signed
BAT before production printing can begin.
Established in 1976 by an
international consortium of color scientists. With the advent
of computer technology, establishing standards of measurement
had become critical. Color which is viewed using projected light
(slide projectors, televisions, and computer screens) have a widely
different spectrum than color printed on paper.
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and
Black: the four colors of ink used in printing. CMYK is the smallest
of printable color spaces, capturing less than half of all the
colors within CIE. As with all printing processes, however, there
are color limitations.
A clear coating provides
protection from smudging, fingerprints and water droplets. It
does not improve the permanence of the print because most fading
is due to visible light. On some material, such as canvas, coating
can render a print water-resistant, allowing it to be framed without
process of an artist working closely with a printmaker to produce
a digital print, especially an original digital print or one requiring
considerable alteration of the original image.
An advanced technology
that uses profiles of the input and output devices to maximize
color accuracy. Additionally, profiles are created for the various
The range of colors
that are unique to a particular device, paper, ink set or combination.
The widest gamut is the visible spectrum, those wavelengths of
light perceived by the human eye.
A dimensional representation
of the visual color spectrum by which all color information is
referenced. The expectation of the artist and photographer as
to printable color must be tempered by the papers and inks and
their capabilities and limitations.
papers have natural deckles on two or four sides. Frequently the
look of a print is improved by tearing the paper rather than cutting
it, creating "torn deckles."
Digital Fine Art Print:
art print made by any digital process.
D.P.I. (dots per inch):
of the detail of a print. "Apparent d.p.i." refers to
the fact that the eye perceives a giclee as having greater detail
than it does in physical reality.
Dye Based Inks:
with vegetable dye offering a wider color gamut than pigmented
inks but will fade within 5-10 years under normal viewing conditions.
(Fr. "a spraying of
ink"): A common term for fine art digital prints.
High Resolution Scan:
scan using color tables optimized fine art digital printing.
Fine art papers that
are stocked by a printer.
Documents describing the
precise layout of a print or prints on a sheet of paper. The layout
indicates both the exact size of the prints and the amount of
white space around each print.
to be printed on, such as watercolor papers, canvas, rice paper,
wood veneer, cotton, plastic, etc.
Original Digital Print:
that is created entirely or largely on the computer, often by
scanning in individual elements and then combining them electronically.
A printer head
technology that uses micro-electric firing of crystals to control
the flow of ink to the substrate.
using the type of pigments found in paints, very long fade resistence,
100-200 years, but with a smaller color gamut than dyed based
The file used to produce
a final proof that is archived for producing current and future
printings of an edition.
The person who does
the actual printing of a digital image. A printmaker uses a printer
(the equipment) to make a digital print.
Print On Demand:
The ability of the digital process to
reproduce prints over a long period of time with consistency.
This allows for a small number of prints when needed.
A smaller print used to
evaluate a file prior to printing.
It is generally possible
to resize files so prints can be made either smaller or larger.
Significant upsizing greater than 25% is usually not successful.
Red, Green, and Blue, the
three color ‘guns’ built into our computer monitors,
TV sets, and digital photographic printers. RGB is considered
an ‘additive’ color process, where the combination
of all three colors can create a rather wide array of color, roughly
75% of all the colors within CIE.
RIP (Raster Image Processing):
Software that translates computer imaging into a format usable
by digital printers.
The process of converting
a transparency, negative, original, or print to a digital file.
The sheet of paper
or other material that will be printed on.
A high quality positive
color-film reproduction made by experienced art photographers.
Lighting is crucial for evenness, color, and lack of any specular
highlights. Transparencies can be 4 x 5 or 8 x 10 inches. The
pre-press process tries to create a print that looks like the
transparency, not the original, so the transparency should reflect
the original as accurately as possible.
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